CRITICAL THINKING AND TEACHING STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE LITERARY TEXT
The development of students’ critical thinking skills is a paramount issue of modern education globally. Notwithstanding there is no accord among the philosophers, psychologists and educators as to transferability and teachability of critical thinking skills. Our approach to this issue is twofold. In order to become independent thinkers, students should be equipped with critical thinking inventory as well as have advanced practical skills of its application. This article is an attempt to look at the problem of teaching the stylistic analysis of the literary text from the perspective of critical thinking. We discuss how by the critical reading of a literary work and applying a polycritical methodology to its analysis students enhance the high-order thinking skills – analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The present paper illustrates some before, during and after reading classroom strategies that can be utilized to encourage students to dig deeper and “read between the lines” in order to decode the message of the author, effectively interpret it and use it as a vantage point for constructing intermedial connections, self-reflection and interpretation of the real world. Progressive educators create the learning environment where freedom of thought and the dissent are equally accepted and fostered. The anchoring potential of critical thinking as a mediator between the fictional and real world and as a booster of the students’ abilities to evaluate, make an independent judgment and solve problems is viewed by us as a leverage on rote learning and copy-paste mentality as well as an instrument of establishing democratic values in education.
Abrams, Meyer Howard. 2005. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Edited by Stephen Greenblatt. 8th ed. Volume 2. New York: Norton & Company.
Dennis M. Adams, Mary E. Hamm. 1990. Cooperative Learning: Critical Thinking and Collaboration across the Curriculum. Springfield, Il.: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Barnet, Sylvan, Berman, Morton, Burto, William, Stubbs, Marcia. 1996. Literature for Composition: Essays, Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. 4th edition. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
Bernstein, Richard J. 1992. The New Constellation: Ethical-Political Horizons of Modernity/Postmodernity. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Bernstein, Richard J. 2005. The Abuse of Evil: The Corruption of Politics and Religion since 9/11. Cambridge, Malden: Polity Press.
Bobkina, Jelena, and Stefanova, Svetlana. 2016. Literature and critical literacy pedagogy in the EFL classroom: Towards a model of teaching critical thinking skills. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6 (4): 677–696.
Carter, Ronald, and Long, Michael L. 1987. The Web of Words: Exploring Literature through Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Collie, Johanne, and Slater, Steven. 1987. Literature in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ennis, Robert. H. 1985. A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. Educational Leadership, 43(2): 44–48.
Esplugas, Celia, and Lundwehr, Margarete. 1996. The Use of Critical Thinking Skills In Literary Analysis. WestChester University. Foreign Language Annals.
Guerin, Wilfred, Labor, Earle, Morgan, Lee, Reesman, Jeanne, and Willingham, John. 1992. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. 3rd Edition. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Halpern, Diane. F. 2003. Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking (4th edition). New Jersey: Elbaum, Mahwah.
Hilbert, Martin. 2012. How much information is there in the “information society”? Accessed May 3, 2018. https://rss.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1740-9713.2012.00584.x
Hooks, Bell. 2010. Teaching critical thinking: practical wisdom. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. New York and London.
Iser, Wolfgang. 1974. The implied reader: Patterns of communication in prose fiction from Bunyan to Beckett. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
James, W. 1978. The Writings of William James: A Comprehensive Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jauss, Hans Robert. 1982. "Literary history as a challenge to literary theory". In Toward an Aesthetic of Reception, 3–45. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Judge, Brenda, Jones, Patrick, and McCreery, Elaine. 2009. Critical Thinking Skills for Education Students. Learning Matters. Publisher Sage Publications Ltd; Imprint Learning Matters Ltd.
Key Competences for lifelong learning. Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council. December 18, 2006. Accessed April 29, 2018. http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:394:0010:0018:en:PDF.
Leech, Geoffrey, and Short, Mick. 2007. Style in Fiction. A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose, 61-64. 2nd edition. Pearson Education Limited.
Locke, John. 1689. The Works of John Locke, vol. 1 (An Essay concerning Human Understanding Part 1). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/locke-the-works-vol-1-an-essay-concerning-human-understanding-part-1.
Lodge, David. 1980. Analysis and Interpretation of the Realistic Text: A Pluralistic Approach to Ernest Hemingway’s “Cat in the Rain”, 5-22. Poetics Today 1. no. 4. Narratology II: The Fictional Text and the Reader.
Maunder, Andrew. ed. 2010. Encyclopedia of literary romanticism. Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing.
Mayer, Laura Reis. 2009. A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Penguin Group (USA).
McPeck, John. 1990. Teaching Critical Thinking: Dialogue and Dialectic. New York: Routledge.
Navracsics, Tibor. 2017. EU cooperation on strengthening media literacy and critical thinking in education and training. Accessed April 26, 2018. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/commissioners/2014-2019/navracsics/announcements/eu-cooperation-strengthening-media-literacy-and-critical-thinking-education-and-training_en).
Norris, Steven. 1992. Introduction: The Generalizability Question, 1-5. In: Steven Norris, Ed. The Generalizability of Critical Thinking: Multiple Perspectives of an Educational Ideal. New York: Teachers College press.
Paul R., and Elder L. 2007. "Critical thinking: The art of Socratic questioning." Journal of Developmental Education 31, no. 1: 34–35.
Paul, Richard. 1990. Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World. Rohnert Park, CA: Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique.
Piaget, Jean. 1977. "The role of action in the development of thinking". In Knowledge and development, 17–42. Springer US.
Pryhodii, Serhii, Horenko, Olena. 2006. Amerykanskyi romantyzm. Polikrytyka. Kyiv: Lybid.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1762. Emile, or Education. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/rousseau-emile-or-education.
Rowling J. K. 1998. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. Published by Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.
Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan. 2012. Beyond Feelings. A Guide to Critical Thinking. 9th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
Sadoski, Mark. 2004. Conceptual foundations of teaching reading. New York–London: The Guilford Press.
Schafesman, S. D. 1991. An Introduction to Critical Thinking. http://www.freeinquiry.com/critical-thinking.html.
Shelley, Mery. 1792. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/mary-wollstonecraft-a-vindication-of-the-rights-of-woman.
Shelley, Mery. 2003. Frankenstein. Penguin Classics. Published by Penguin Books Ltd, United Kingdom.
Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Prometheus Unbound. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/prometheus.html.
Siegel, Harvey. 1988. Educating Reason: Rationality, Critical Thinking and Education. New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall.
Stockwell, Peter. Stylistics: retrospect and prospect. https://www.academia.edu/718961/Stylistics_retrospect_and_prospect.
Wolpert, Lewis. 2002. Is Science Dangerous? Nobel Symposium (NS 120). “Virtual Museums and Public Understanding of Science and Culture”. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_organizations/nobelfoundation/publications/symposia/ns120-lectures/wolpert.pdf.
Wordsworth, William. 1798. Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey, On Revisiting the Banks of the Wye during a Tour. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/45527/lines-composed-a-few-miles-above-tintern-abbey-on-revisiting-the-banks-of-the-wye-during-a-tour-july-13-1798.